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Verbs - Irregular verbs - Nepravilni glagoli

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Glagoli - Irregular Verbs - tekstualno objašnjenje

Da li ste znali da je čak 70% glagola koje koristimo u engleskom jeziku zapravo nepravilno?

To samo znači da je od izuzetnog značaja da naučimo da koristimo što više nepravilnih glagola. Nepravilnih glagola ima oko 200, i to samo osnovnih, bez dodavanja prefiksa. Nisu oni svi baš toliko različiti, mnogi prate neka pravila i upadaju u određene šablone. Da biste ih lakše naučili, probajte da ih pamtite po ovim grupama koje ćemo vam u nastavku pokazati:


Glagoli sa sve tri jednake kolone

U ovu grupu spadaju glagoli koji se najlakše pamte, pošto su im Infinitiv (Simple Form), Past Simple I Past Participle forme potpuno jednake.

No. Simple form Simple Past Past Participle
1 beat beat beat
2 bet bet bet
3 bid bid bid
4 burst burst burst
5 cast cast cast
6 cost cost cost
7 cut cut cut
8 fit fit fit
9 forecast forecast forecast
10 hit hit hit
11 hurt hurt hurt
12 let let let
13 put put put
14 quit quit quit
15 read read read
16 rid rid rid
17 set set set
18 shed shed shed
19 spread spread spread
20 shut shut shut
21 slit slit slit
22 spit spit spit
23 split split split
24 thrust thrust thrust
25 upset upset upset

Glagoli kojima su druga i treća kolona identične

Ovde spadaju glagoli kojima su Past Simple i Past Participle forme jednake uz varijacije nastavaka. Neki od njih prate pravila grupe u kojoj se nalaze, ali postoje i oni koji se potpuno razlikuju od ostalih:

  1. Glagoli gde se druga I treća kolona završavaju nastavcima –ought i –aught

    No. Simple form Simple Past Past Participle
    1 bring brought brought
    2 buy bought bought
    3 fight fought fought
    4 seek sought sought
    5 think thought thought
    1 catch caught caught
    2 teach taught taught
  2. Glagoli kojima se dugački samoglasnik u izgovoru pretvara u kratki (najčešće e)

    • Sa dodatim –t na kraju

      No. Simple form Simple Past Past Participle
      1 creep crept crept
      2 keep kept kept
      3 sleep slept slept
      4 sweep swept swept
      5 weep wept wept
    • Kada nastavak –l prelazi u –lt

      No. Simple form Simple Past Past Participle
      1 deal dealt dealt
      2 feel felt felt
      3 kneel knelt knelt
    • Bez dodavanja suglasnika

      No. Simple form Simple Past Past Participle
      1 bleed bled bled
      2 breed bred bred
      3 feed fed fed
      4 flee fled fled
      5 lead led led
      6 plead pled pled
      7 speed sped sped
      8 meet met met
      9 shoot shot shot
  3. Glagoli kojima nastavak –d prelazi u –t :

    No. Simple form Simple Past Past Participle
    1 bend bent bent
    2 lend lent lent
    3 send sent sent
    4 spend spent spent
  4. Glagoli kod kojih nastavak –ell prelazi u –old

    No. Simple form Simple Past Past Participle
    1 sell sold sold
    2 tell told told
  5. Glagoli kojima –ay prelazi u –aid

    No. Simple form Simple Past Past Participle
    1 lay laid laid
    2 mislay mislaid mislaid
    3 pay paid paid
    4 say said said
  6. Glagoli kojima nastavak –ing prelazi u –ung (sa izuzetkom glagola "hang")

    No. Simple form Simple Past Past Participle
    1 cling clung clung
    2 fling flung flung
    3 hang hung hung
    4 sling slung slung
    5 string strung strung
    6 swing swung swung
    7 wring wrung wrung
  7. Nastavak –and prelazi u –ood

    No. Simple form Simple Past Past Participle
    1 stand stood stood
    2 understand understood understood
    3 withstand withstood withstood
  8. Kada se "i" iz reči pretvara u "ou"

    No. Simple form Simple Past Past Participle
    1 bind bound bound
    2 find found found
    3 grind ground ground
    4 wind wound wound
  9. Ostali glagoli kojima su druga I treća kolona identične

    No. Simple form Simple Past Past Participle
    1 build built built
    2 dig dug dug
    3 hear heard heard
    4 hold held held
    5 leave left left
    6 lose lost lost
    7 make made made
    8 mean meant meant
    9 shine shone shone
    10 slide slid slid
    11 spin spun spun
    12 strike struck struck
    13 win won won
    14 sit sat sat

Glagoli kojima su osnovna i Past Participle forma jednake

Ovde spadaju samo tri glagola koji u osnovi imaju glagol "come" plus glagol "run", koji možemo naći u naredno spomenutoj grupi.

No. Simple form Simple Past Past Participle
1 become became become
2 come came come
3 overcome overcame overcome

Glagoli kod kojih su sve tri kolone različite

  1. Iz prve kolone "i" prelazi u "a" u drugoj, pa u "u" u trećoj koloni

    No. Simple form Simple Past Past Participle
    1 begin began begun
    2 drink drank drunk
    3 ring rang rung
    4 run ran run
    5 shrink shrank shrunk
    6 sing sang sung
    7 sink sank sunk
    8 stink stank stunk
    9 swim swam swum
  2. Glagoli sa nastavkom –ew u drugoj I dodatim –n na osnovni oblik u trećoj koloni

    No. Simple form Simple Past Past Participle
    1 blow blew blown
    2 draw drew drawn
    3 fly flew flown
    4 grow grew grown
    5 know knew known
    6 throw threw thrown
    7 withdraw withdrew withdrawn

  3. Glagoli sa promenom iz "ea" u "o" u reči i dodatim -n u trećoj koloni

    No. Simple form Simple Past Past Participle
    1 bear bore born
    2 swear swore sworn
    3 tear tore torn
    4 wear wore worn

  4. Svi glagoli sa dodatim –en/–n u trećoj koloni

    No. Simple form Simple Past Past Participle
    1 break broke broken
    2 speak spoke spoken
    3 wake woke woken
    4 forsake forsook forsaken
    5 mistake mistook mistaken
    6 overtake overtook overtaken
    7 shake shook shaken
    8 take took taken
    9 undertake undertook undertaken
    10 drive drove driven
    11 forgive forgave forgiven
    12 give gave given
    13 strive strove striven
    14 weave wove woven
    15 hide hid hidden
    16 forbid forbade forbidden
    17 ride rode ridden
    18 tread trod trodden
    19 bite bit bitten
    20 forget forgot forgotten
    21 get got gotten
    22 write wrote written
    23 arise arose arisen
    24 choose chose chosen
    25 rise rose risen
    26 freeze froze frozen
    27 steal stole stolen
    28 eat ate eaten
    29 fall fell fallen
  5. Ostali glagoli sa sve tri kolone različite

    No. Simple form Simple Past Past Participle
    1 lie lay lain
    2 see saw seen

Nepravilni glagoli koji se najčešće koriste u engleskom jeziku

Na samom kraju, pogledaćemo listu glagola koji se nazivaju i pravi nepravilni glagoli, pošto ne prate ni jedno pravilo građenja, odnosno u potpunosti su nepravilni:

No. Simple form Simple Past Past Participle
1 be was, were been
2 do did done
3 go went gone
4 have had had
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